An introduction to the geography of the state of oceania

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An introduction to the geography of the state of oceania

Map of Nations and territories of Oceania including Australia and New Zealand Other Interpretations Australia is sometimes not included in Oceania, although a term like the "Pacific Islands" would normally be used to describe Oceania without Australia.

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Hawaii and the United States territories with no indigenous population in the North Pacific are sometimes included, but are normally grouped with the United States in North America. Hawaiians are a Polynesian race. Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the eastern Pacific Ocean, part of the territory of Chileand is sometimes included in Oceania.

On rare occasions, the term may be stretched even further to include other Pacific Ocean island groups such as the Aleutian Islands. Oceania ecozone Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet.

Oceania is the smallest in area of any of the ecozones, and the youngest, geologically. Other ecozones include old continental land masses or fragments of continents, but Oceania is composed mostly of island groups that arose from the sea, as a result of hotspot volcanism, or as island arcs pushed upward by the collision and subduction of tectonic plates.

The islands range from tiny coral atolls to large mountainous islands, like Hawaii and Fiji.

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The climate of Oceania's islands is tropical or subtropical, and ranges from humid to seasonally dry. Wetter parts of the islands are covered by tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestswhile the drier parts of the islands, including the leeward sides of the islands and many of the low coral islands, are covered by tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands.

Hawaii 's high volcanoes, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, are home to some rare tropical montane grasslands and shrublands. Since the islands of Oceania were never connected by land to a continent, the flora and fauna of the islands originally reached them from across the ocean.

Once they reached the islands, the ancestors of Oceania's present flora and fauna adapted to life on the islands. Larger islands with diverse ecological niches encouraged floral and faunal adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species evolved from a common ancestor, each species adapted to a different ecological niche; the various species of Hawaiian honeycreepers family Drepanididae are a classic example.

Other adaptations to island ecologies include giantism, dwarfism, and, among birdsloss of flight. Land plants dispersed by several different means. Many plants, mostly ferns and mosses but also some flowering plants, disperse on the wind, relying on tiny spores or feathery seeds that can remain airborne over long distances.

Other plants, notably coconut palms and mangroves, produce seeds that can float in saltwater over long distances, eventually washing up on distant beaches. Birds are also an important means of dispersal; some plants produce sticky seeds that are carried on the feet or feathers of birds, and many plants produce fruits filled with seeds that can pass through the digestive tracts of birds.

Botanists generally agree that much of the flora of Oceania is derived from the Malesian Flora of the Malay Peninsula, Indonesiathe Philippinesand New Guineawith some plants from Australasia and a few from the Americas, particularly in Hawaii.

Metrosideros, Pandanus, and Coco are tree genera with a fairly ubiquitous distribution across Oceania. Dispersal across the ocean is difficult for most land animalsand Oceania has relatively few indigenous land animals compared to other ecozones.

Certain types of animals that are ecologically important on the continental ecozones, like large land predators and grazing mammalswere entirely absent from the islands of Oceania until humans brought them.

Birds are relatively common, including many sea birds and some species of land birds whose ancestors may have been blown out to sea by storms. Some birds evolved into flightless species after their ancestors arrived, including several species of rails.

A number of islands have indigenous lizardsincluding geckoes and skinkswhose ancestors probably arrived on floating rafts of vegetation washed out to sea by storms. With the exception of batswhich live on most of the island groups, there are few if any indigenous mammal species in Oceania.

Several species, however, have been introduced by humans: European settlers brought other animals, including catsmongoosessheepgoatsand the Norway rat. These and other introduced species, in addition to overhunting and deforestation, have dramatically altered the ecology of many of Oceania's islands, pushing many species to extinction or near-extinction.

The arrival of humans on these island groups often resulted in disruption of the indigenous ecosystems and waves of species extinctions. Easter Islandthe easternmost island in Polynesia, shows evidence of a human-caused ecosystem collapse several hundred years ago, which then caused the human population to implode.

The island, once lushly forested, is now mostly windswept grasslands. More recently, Guam 's native bird and lizard species were decimated by the introduction of the brown snake, Boiga irregularis, in the s.

Economy The economy of Oceania is comprised of more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies.Clickable Map Quizzes of the world - just click on the map to answer the questions.

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An introduction to the geography of the state of oceania

Great geography practice for students in elementary school, middle school, high school, colleges and universities. Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth and universe.

The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (– BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural. Oceania (UK: / ˌ oʊ s i ˈ ɑː n i ə, ˌ oʊ ʃ i-, -ˈ eɪ n-/, US: / ˌ oʊ ʃ i ˈ æ n i ə / (), /-ˈ ɑː n-/) is a geographic region comprising Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania covers an area of 8,, square kilometres (3,, sq mi) and has a population of 40 leslutinsduphoenix.comed in the southeast of the Asia.

Oceania - Wikipedia