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Manufacturing[ edit ] Flexible printed circuits FPC are made with a photolithographic technology. An alternative way of making flexible foil circuits or flexible flat cables FFCs is laminating very thin 0.
These PET layers, typically 0. Tightly assembled electronic Flexible work approach, where electrical connections are required in 3 axes, such as cameras static application.
Advantages for employers and employees exist when the employer allows employees to work flexible leslutinsduphoenix.comr the flexible work schedule involves compressing work days, flexible daily hours, or telecommuting, challenges exist for the employer and the employee. Flexibility, the online journal of flexible work. Code of Practice for Smart Working from British Standards. A new Code of Practice for Smart Working (PAS ) from the British Standards Institute was launched at BT Tower on 21 leslutinsduphoenix.comsioned by the UK Cabinet Office, it sets out agreed definitions and specifies good practice for Smart Working. it's already being used by organisations. In the past, people often had to choose between their personal & professional goals; as sometimes it was too difficult to find balance between the two; but now thanks to the technological advances, the typical work structure has started to change to meet the needs of employees; benefiting companies and employees.
Electrical connections where the assembly is required to flex during its normal use, such as folding cell phones dynamic application. Electrical connections between sub-assemblies to replace wire harnesses, which are heavier and bulkier, such as in cars, rockets and satellites.
Electrical connections where board thickness or space constraints are driving factors.
Advantage of FPCs[ edit ] Potential to replace multiple rigid boards or connectors Single-sided circuits are ideal for dynamic or high-flex applications Stacked FPCs in various configurations Disadvantages of FPCs[ edit ] Cost increase over rigid PCBs Increased risk of damage during handling or use More difficult assembly process Repair and rework is difficult or impossible Generally worse panel utilization resulting in increased cost Applications[ edit ] Flex circuits are often used as connectors in various applications where flexibility, space savings, or production constraints limit the serviceability of rigid circuit boards or hand wiring.
A common application of flex circuits is in computer keyboards; most keyboards use flex circuits for the switch matrix. In LCD fabrication, glass is used as a substrate. If thin flexible plastic or metal foil is used as the substrate instead, the entire system can be flexible, as the film deposited on top of the substrate is usually very thin, on the order of a few micrometres.
Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs are normally used instead of a back-light for flexible displays, making a flexible organic light-emitting diode display. Most flexible circuits are passive wiring structures that are used to interconnect electronic components such as integrated circuits, resistors, capacitors and the like, however some are used only for making interconnections between other electronic assemblies either directly or by means of connectors.
In the automotive field, flexible circuits are used in instrument panels, under-hood controls, circuits to be concealed within the headliner of the cabin, and in ABS systems.
Consumer electronics devices make use of flexible circuits in cameras, personal entertainment devices, calculators, or exercise monitors. Flexible circuits are found in industrial and medical devices where many interconnections are required in a compact package.
Cellular telephones are another widespread example of flexible circuits. Flexible solar cells have been developed for powering satellites.
These cells are lightweight, can be rolled up for launch, and are easily deployable, making them a good match for the application. They can also be sewn into backpacks or outerwear. One of the earliest descriptions of what could be called a flex circuit was unearthed by Dr Ken Gilleo and disclosed in an English patent by Albert Hansen in where Hansen described a construction consisting of flat metal conductors on paraffin coated paper.
Curtis  a brief discussion of creating circuits on what would have been flexible insulating materials e. An advertisement from the placed by Photocircuits Corporation in New York demonstrated their active interest in flexible circuits also. Today, flexible circuits which are also variously known around the world variously as flexible printed wiring, flex print, flexi circuits, are used many products.
Large credit is due to the efforts of Japanese electronics packaging engineers who have found countless new ways to employ flexible circuit technology. For the last decade, flexible circuits have remained one of the fastest growing of all interconnection product market segments.
A more recent variation on flexible circuit technology is one called "flexible electronics" which commonly involves the integration of both active and passive functions in the processing. Flexible circuit structures[ edit ] There are a few basic constructions of flexible circuits but there is significant variation between the different types in terms of their construction.
Following is a review of the most common types of flexible circuit constructions Single-sided flex circuits[ edit ] Single-sided flexible circuits have a single conductor layer made of either a metal or conductive metal filled polymer on a flexible dielectric film.
Component termination features are accessible only from one side. Holes may be formed in the base film to allow component leads to pass through for interconnection, normally by soldering.
Single sided flex circuits can be fabricated with or without such protective coatings as cover layers or cover coats, however the use of a protective coating over circuits is the most common practice. The development of surface mounted devices on sputtered conductive films has enabled the production of transparent LED Films, which is used in LED Glass but also in flexible automotive lighting composites.
Double access or back bared flex circuits[ edit ] Double access flex, also known as back bared flex, are flexible circuits having a single conductor layer but which is processed so as to allow access to selected features of the conductor pattern from both sides.
While this type of circuit has certain benefits, the specialized processing requirements for accessing the features limits its use.
Sculptured flex circuits[ edit ] Sculptured flex circuits are a novel subset of normal flexible circuit structures.
The manufacturing process involves a special flex circuit multi-step etching method which yields a flexible circuit having finished copper conductors wherein the thickness of the conductor differs at various places along their length. Double-sided flex circuits[ edit ] Double-sided flex circuits are flex circuits having two conductor layers.
These flex circuits can be fabricated with or without plated through holesthough the plated through hole variation is much more common. When constructed without plated through holes and connection features are accessed from one side only, the circuit is defined as a "Type V 5 " according to military specifications.Since , Flexible Plan Investments has been dedicated to preserving and growing wealth through dynamic risk management.
Our fee-based separately managed accounts can provide diversified portfolios of actively managed strategies within equity, debt, and alternative asset classes. Human resources jobs, and business and work related news and events. Flexibility, the online journal of flexible work. Code of Practice for Smart Working from British Standards.
A new Code of Practice for Smart Working (PAS ) from the British Standards Institute was launched at BT Tower on 21 leslutinsduphoenix.comsioned by the UK Cabinet Office, it sets out agreed definitions and specifies good practice for Smart Working.
it's already being used by organisations. Whether the flexible work schedule involves compressing work days, flexible daily hours, or telecommuting, challenges exist for the employer and the employee. Let's take a look at the advantages for employers and employees that negotiating a .
The adoption of flexible work practices is a growing trend within modern organisations, who find themselves under pressure to provide employees with the opportunity to achieve work-life balance.
Flexible employees modify their approach to tasks based on the preferences of stakeholders and the unique demands of each situation. Having employees willing to step outside their job description means employers can get more accomplished.