Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation.
Russell had been appointed guardian of the pre-war decrypts, and he alone held the combination to the storage safe. Stimson's report to Congress, based on Clausen's work, was limited due to secrecy concerns, largely about cryptography.
A more complete account was not made publicly available until the mids, and not published until as Pearl Harbor: Reaction to the publication has varied. Some regard it as a valuable addition to understanding the events,  while one historian noted Clausen did not speak to General Walter ShortArmy commander at Pearl Harbor during the attack, and called Clausen's investigation "notoriously unreliable" in several aspects.
These authors assert that Roosevelt was imminently expecting and seeking war, but wanted Japan to take the first overtly aggressive action. Roosevelt 's inner circleremarked that: Prior to December 7, it was evident even to me I believed that it was the desire of President Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Churchill that we get into the war, as they felt the Allies could not win without us and all our efforts to cause the Germans to declare war on us failed; the conditions we imposed upon Japan—to get out of China, for example—were so severe that we knew that nation could not accept them.
We were forcing her so severely that we could have known that she would react toward the United States. All her preparations in a military way — and we knew their over-all import — pointed that way. But the risks paid off; even the loss was worth the price. StimsonUnited States Secretary of War at the time "entered in his diary the famous and much-argued statement — that he had met with President Roosevelt to discuss the evidence of impending hostilities with Japan, and the question was 'how we should maneuver them [the Japanese] into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.
Given these two facts, both of which were stated without equivocation in the message of Nov. To cluster his airplanes in such groups and positions that in an emergency they could not take the air for several hours, and to keep his antiaircraft ammunition so stored that it could not be promptly and immediately available, and to use his best reconnaissance system, radar, only for a very small fraction of the day and night, in my opinion betrayed a misconception of his real duty which was almost beyond belief.
Stinnett claims the memo suggests only a direct attack on U. An attack by Japan would not, could not, aid Britain. Although the memo was passed to Captains Walter Anderson and Dudley Knoxtwo of Roosevelt's military advisors, on October 7,there is no evidence to suggest Roosevelt ever saw it, while Stinnett's claims of evidence he did is nonexistent.
Nonetheless, in Day of Deceit Stinnett claims all action items were implemented. Mark Parillo, in his essay The United States in the Pacific, wrote, "[t]hese theories tend to founder on the logic of the situation.
Had Roosevelt and other members of his administration known of the attack in advance, they would have been foolish to sacrifice one of the major instruments needed to win the war just to get the United States into it.
War between the United States and Japan should be avoided Gerowhead of Army War Plansstated, "one of our present major objectives [is] the avoidance of war with Japan One quote is often used to add legitimacy to the notion the British Government knew in advance of the attack.
Japan was provoked into attacking the Americans at Pearl Harbor. It is a travesty of history ever to say that America was forced into the war. Everyone knows where American sympathies were. It is incorrect to say that America was truly neutral even before America came into the war on an all-out basis.
Rather, it refers to other aid to Britain. Lend-Leaseenacted in Marchinformally declared the end of American neutrality in favor of the Allies by agreeing to supply Allied nations with war materials.
In addition, Roosevelt authorized a so-called Neutrality Patrolwhich would protect the merchantmen of one nation, namely Britain, from attack by another, Germany.
This made shipping legitimate target of attack by submarine. This made the U. None was the act of a disinterested neutral, while all are unquestionably of assistance to Britain.
When considering information like this as a point for or against, the reader must keep in mind questions such as: Did he have communications with high-level administration figures such as President Roosevelt or Ambassador Joseph Grew?
Is this just a strongly held personal opinion?
Or were there measures justifying this view? If Britain, did, indeed know and chose to conceal, "withholding this vital intelligence only ran the risk of losing American trust",  and with it any further American aid, which would be reduced after the attack in any event. Toland cited entries from the diary of Rear Admiral J.
Ranneft attended briefings at ONI on these dates. However, the diary uses the Dutch abbreviation beW, meaning "westerly", contradicting Toland's claim.
Nor did any other persons present at the briefings report hearing Toland's version. Zimmerman  suggested Ranneft's reference was to carriers near the Marshall Islands.
Toland has made other conflicting and incorrect claims about the diary during lectures at the Holocaust denial organization the Institute for Historical Review.Mar 30, · Liberty University’s online Doctor of Education (EdD) program provides all of the critically advanced education administration, research, curriculum development, and learning theory skills and knowledge needed to help you make a positive impact on the world of leslutinsduphoenix.com: Ktcox.
Human Action: A Treatise on Economics (4 Volume Set) [Ludwig von Mises, Bettina Bien Greaves] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In the foreword to Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, Mises explains complex market phenomena as the outcomes of countless conscious.
ONE The Doctrine of the Separation of Powers and Institutional Theory. The history of Western political thought portrays the development and elaboration of a set of values—justice, liberty, equality, and the sanctity of property—the implications of which have been examined and debated down through the centuries; but just as important is the history of the debates about the institutional.
In this paper I present a retrospective review of the development and history of the path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. I briefly describe the origin of the theory. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Within the Ph.D. in Social Science is an optional concentration in Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, supervised by an interdisciplinary group of faculty..
Within the M.A. in Social Science, students may apply directly to the concentration in Demographic and Social Analysis.